Guidance for Use of Generative AI Tools for Teaching and Learning
Generative Artificial Intelligence (Generative AI) is a type of artificial intelligence technology that uses machine learning to create new things. Related developments in AI assistance and Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) are inevitable trends for the future. NTU has adopted a positive attitude towards these trends and encourages faculty members to consider generative AI tools (such as ChatGPT) as an opportunity to enhance teaching. In response to the development of new tools, teachers can make timely adjustments to classroom teaching, and designing content and assessments that better reflect the uniqueness and objectives of your courses. At the same time, students should also understand the limitations of using AI tools, and learn how to use these tools to facilitate your learning.
Faculty and students can gain a better understanding of these tools from the aspects of teaching and learning. Take ChatGPT as an example, we provide the following guidance for the use of generative AI tools.
◎ What is ChatGPT?
ChatGPT is a large language model (LLM) released on November 30, 2022, that is currently receiving a lot of attention. The model is based on generative AI technology. Similar LLMs include PaLM and Bloom. The principle of generative AI is to analyze data models through machine learning, and then automatically generate text, images, audio, video, and other content.
◎ What are the functions of ChatGPT?
The main function of ChatGPT is to perform natural language processing and generate many kinds of textual content, such as:
- Conversation: conducting a one-on-one dialog between user and AI by answering user’s question.
- Translation: translating text from one language to another.
- Summarization: condensing long texts into short summaries.
- Composition: generating articles, stories, news, poems, scripts, etc. based on keywords input by the user.
- Recommendation: recommending articles, videos, music, etc. based on the user’s interests and Internet history.
- Q&A: answering questions from users, or providing relevant content based on keywords input by users, such as answers to frequently asked questions, knowledge/informational inquiries, etc.
- Text Analysis: content analysis, topic summaries, character recognition, etc.
◎ What are the limitations of ChatGPT?
- Network Restriction: It operates on cloud servers and requires an intern connection to use.
- Language Restriction: Currently, it only supports a limited number of languages and may not be able to process text in certain languages.
- Data Restriction: Training data is obtained through the Internet which may lead to biases and errors in the generated text, requiring users to make their own judgments and verifications.
- Privacy Restriction: Some functions may require users to provide personal privacy information, such as chat histories, search histories, etc. Users should pay attention to what data they share.
Guidance for Instructors
◎ How to respond to students using Generative AI Tools in my courses?
If you have concerns about your students using generative AI tools such as ChatGPT, we suggest making three adjustments:
- Clearly communicate the methods and restrictions of using generative AI tools to students: First, you should clarify the principles and guidelines for using generative AI tools in your courses. In addition to verbal explanations and reminders so that students clearly understand the rules, you should also clearly state your rules on generative AI in the course syllabus at the beginning of the course, to help reach consensus with the students and prevent disputes. You should also think about which classroom activities and assignments students are permitted or not permitted to use generative AI tools on. If the tools can be used, in what forms and scopes are they allowed? If not, how will generative AI use be detected? And how will the misuse be handled?
- Enhance classroom practice and exercises: Depending on the nature of your course, provide students with learning activities that must be performed or completed in the classroom.
- Adjust evaluation methods: Broaden the scope of learning assessments. Instead of focusing on a single assessment or end result, look at progress or cumulative results that students demonstrate through the learning process. Another approach is to deepen the content of learning assessments by increasing the difficulty of assignments or exams, adding content that is unique to your course, or designing assessments that better reflect students’ personal characteristics.
◎ How to use ChatGPT for teaching?
- Designing exam questions and checking answers: When you create exam questions, try answering them via ChatGPT. If ChatGPT is able to get most of the questions correct, that may mean you need to adjust the questions. Make adjustments by increasing the difficulty of the questions, adding content that is unique to your course, or adding content that reflects students’ personal characteristics.
- Drafting lesson plans or assignment instructions: Try using ChatGPT to create a first draft or to organize your ideas, then refine them, to make your work more efficient. Also use ChatGPT to check whether your assignment instructions are complete and comprehensible, to identify areas that need modification or additional explanation.
- Creating teaching or learning materials: Use ChatGPT to create worksheets, practice questions, activity instructions, and resources for student self-learning.
◎ What courses and learning content are suitable for using ChatGPT?
ChatGPT is a language model that can be used to support a variety of courses that require natural language processing. Examples include:
- Language and Linguistics: Help students learn and analyze various aspects of language, including grammar, syntax, and semantics.
- Communication and Media Studies: Explore how language is used in different forms of media and communication channels, including social media, news, and advertising.
- Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence: Help students understand the principles of natural language processing and machine learning, including techniques for text classification, language modeling, and sentiment analysis.
- Psychology and Cognitive Science: Study how humans process language and communicate with each other, and how technology is changing communication patterns.
- Education and Language Studies: Support language learning by providing feedback, practice, and dialogue.
◎ Are there any tools to detect whether or not a student is using ChatGPT?
Currently, detection tools for ChatGPT-generated content include OpenAI AI Text Classifier, CheckforAI, GPTzero.me, and Content at Scale. However, we need to remind you that the current technology for detecting ChatGPT-generated text does not provide sufficient accuracy for you to say for certain whether AI-generated content has been used in a particular assignment. In addition, detection is more difficult if the generated content has been modified rather than used directly. Furthermore, since the content of AI-generated text is arbitrary combinations of words, even if a detection tool determines that AI-generated text was used in an assignment, it cannot provide conclusive evidence (that is, unlike existing plagiarism detection tools that can clearly identify the journals or web pages containing similar content). This being the case, teachers must be cautious about using any AI content detection tools, to avoid false detections that cannot be validated and that could lead to further disputes.
◎ Will ChatGPT replace introductory-level courses?
The existence of ChatGPT does not diminish the value of learning the fundamentals of any given topic. Responses currently given by ChatGPT often have errors and do not give more in-depth reasoning or creative production. The majority of research indicates that while the quality of ChatGPT-generated content is moderate to high, it is not yet comparable to leading-edge results. When students (or anyone) work with the content provided by ChatGPT, they must first be able to identify the correctness of the content, evaluate the quality of the results, and know how to apply the relevant content. Additionally, using ChatGPT requires that the user describe their needs in a correct, logical manner. All of this requires a high level of training and knowledge in the fundamentals.
Guidance for Students
◎ How to use content generated by ChatGPT?
When you use ChatGPT to facilitate writing assignments or reports, you must clearly indicate that content produced by ChatGPT is used, so that the reader understands what resources you have used to support your argument. If you find that the content used comes from the works of others, use an appropriate citation format, such as APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, etc. (as required by your School or course) to indicate the exact source of the content. When you use AI-generated content, it is necessary to conduct information verification; ensure that academic ethics and academic integrity requirements are followed, and that you don’t engage in plagiarism or copyright violations.
◎ How to cite content generated by ChatGPT?
At present, there are no definite rules for citing AI-generated content in academic writing. However, the sources of AI-generated content cannot be retrieved, accessed, or provided with direct links. Therefore, we recommend treating it as “personal communication” or “correspondence” and make use of the appropriate citation format. For details and citation methods, please refer to APA, MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, and other citation format. You can also refer to Scribbr for citation suggestions and examples: ChatGPT Citations | Formats & Examples 。
◎ How to use ChatGPT to help with learning?
- Answering questions: Ask ChatGPT questions to further clarify concepts or ideas that you’re unclear about within a topic of study or course content.
- Providing feedback: Use ChatGPT to analyze your assignments and provide feedback as a reference for reflection and improvement.
- Providing Examples: Use ChatGPT generated content as examples to compare or analyze the strengths and weaknesses of your own work.
- Editing written content: Use ChatGPT to assist with coursework or reports writing by correcting grammar or refining content.
- Practicing languages: Use the conversation and question-and-answer functions for learning foreign languages.
- Practicing critical thinking: Content generated by ChatGPT may include information bias and errors. It is thus necessary to learn to examine, evaluate, and analyze information. With content that lacks supporting evidence or seems incorrect, seek other authoritative sources to ensure that the information is accurate, reliable, and meets academic and research requirements
- Clarifying ideas and identifying goals: When you use ChatGPT, your questions must be as clear and specific as possible to receive high-quality responses. The question-and-answer process with ChatGPT can thus help you clarify your ideas and better identify your learning goals.
◎ What should be aware of when using ChatGPT?
- Avoid over-reliance on ChatGPT: The content generated by ChatGPT can only be used as a reference; it cannot replace personal thinking and research results. Therefore, you cannot rely on ChatGPT-generated content for learning, or even research. Instead, use the content generated by ChatGPT as a reference and combine it with personal analysis and reflection to complete your learning.
- Improving the quality of questions: To get quality answers from AI-generated content, you must first have quality questions. The questions you ask must be as clear and specific as possible, so that ChatGPT can interpret them more readily and provide meaningful answers. Even then, ChatGPT may still produce incorrect or ambiguous answers, so it is up to you to assess the correctness of the answers.
- Clearly defining your learning objectives: It is important to have clear learning objectives before using ChatGPT. That way, you can focus on questions and answers related to these objectives, and deepen your understanding of the topics through the information you obtain from ChatGPT. In addition to checking the information yourself, we suggest that you discuss the information with other students and teachers. By obtaining different perspectives and opinions, you can confirm that the information you’re using is consistent with your learning objectives.
Sources and Further Reading
- Noy, S., & Zhang, W. (2023, Mar. 1). Experimental evidence on the productivity effects of generative artificial intelligence. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4375283
- Gurdeniz, E., & Hosanagar, K. (2023, Feb. 23). Generative AI won’t revolutionize search – yet. https://hbr.org/2023/02/generative-ai-wont-revolutionize-search-yet
- Mollick, E., & Mollick, L. (2023, Feb. 9). Why all our classes suddenly became AI classes: Strategies for teaching and learning in a ChatGPT. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/inspiring-minds/why-all-our-classes-suddenly-became-ai-classes
- University of Oxford Centre for Teaching and Learning (2023, Jan, 30). Four lessons from ChatGPT: Challenges and opportunities for educators. https://www.ctl.ox.ac.uk/article/four-lessons-from-chatgpt-challenges-and-opportunities-for-educators
- Mollick, E. (2023, Jan. 10). How to… use ChatGPT to boost your writing: The key to using generative AI successfully is prompt-crafting. https://oneusefulthing.substack.com/p/how-to-use-chatgpt-to-boost-your