(一)教師錄製線上教學影片,上傳至網路空間供學生觀看,應如何使用以避免侵害他人著作權?

回覆:教師將他人著作上傳到網路上供人下載或轉寄給學生,即屬著作權法上之「重製」、「公開傳輸」等利用行為,應取得著作權人之同意或授權。為尊重他人著作,並保障他人及教師之著作權,建議參考以下作法:
1. 課前聲明:上課前對同學聲明尊重著作權文字,如:「本課程內容受著作權法保護,如有超越修習本課程自我學習以外之使用,應先依規定取得授權,不得自行側錄或以其他方式重製、公開傳輸、散布,以免觸法。」
2. 自製教材:為避免違反著作權法規定,甚至享有著作權之保障,建議教師吸收、理解他人著作所表達之觀念後,再轉化以自己的方式表達出來。
3. 合理使用:若將他人著作當作自己論述的引證或不同意見的方式呈現,建議以符合學術「引用」的規則標明出處,並應注意引用之比例不得逾越合理必要範圍。
4. 提供網址:可提供合法網路資料鏈結網址。
5. 書籍內容:可以教學目的公開口述已公開發表之教科書內容。惟應避免直接展示他人書籍內容(包括圖片、文字等),若有利用書籍中之圖片或圖表之必要,可指出所在書籍與頁碼,請學生自行購買正版書籍對照參看。
6. 新聞內容:可使用新聞中單純傳達事實的語文著作 (口述或文字),融入自己的教材或講解中。新聞中的圖表、影片、評論,應取得授權或於合理必要範圍內引用。
7. 如有可能取得著作權人之同意或授權,應事先取得。
8. 出版社提供的教學資源光碟、或教學資源網站的內容 (如圖表、照片、動畫、投影片、教學 手冊、習題解答或試題答案等),通常僅授權教師於備課、課堂授課時利用,教師若將這些數位檔案另行上傳到校園網路平台、雲端硬碟等網路空間,供學生瀏覽、下載利用或將這些檔案錄製於開放式課程中,即屬重製及公開傳輸的利用行為,應取得著作權人同意或授權,如採合理使用方式引用,須於合理必要範圍內且須標明出處。

(二)學生將線上課程側錄以供複習之用,並分享給同學觀看,可以嗎?

回覆:側錄教師之教學影片,屬重製行為,單純自行留存觀看尚屬合理使用。惟若將影片上載供他人觀看、下載,或透過通訊軟體傳送予他人或分享至群組,或販賣、出租予他人等,即屬重製、公開傳輸之利用行為,需取得教師及影片之其他著作權人的同意或授權,始為合法。
課程製作相關智財問題請洽【數位學習中心】 
信箱
ntudlc@ntu.edu.tw
1. How should a teacher use online teaching videos that he recorded and uploaded to the internet without violating others’ copyrights?
Answer:
If a teacher uploads others’ works on the internet for students to download or forwards others’ works to students, such behavior would constitute “reproduction” or “public transmission” of others’ works, and may be subject to Copyright Act.  In principle, consent or license of the copyright owner of the cited work shall be obtained before the teacher “uses” other’s copyrighted content. In order to respect and protect the copyrights of others, teacher is recommended to refer to the following:
(1) Making a statement before starting the course:
Before starting the course, the teacher should ask students of his/her course to respect the copyrights of all teaching contents presented in the course by declaring the wordings as such: “All of the contents of this course are protected by Copyright Act.  If you need to use the contents beyond the purpose of self-learning of this course, you should duly obtain the authorizations in accordance with Copyright Act.  You must not record the contents by yourself or otherwise reproduce, public transmit or distribute the contents, so as not to violate the Act.”
(2) Making the teaching materials by yourself:
To avoid violating the relevant provisions of Copyright Act and be eligible for copyright protection, it is recommended that the teacher absorbs and understands the ideas expressed by others’ works, and then transforms and expresses said ideas in his/her own way.
(3) Fair use:
If the works of others are presented as citations or different opinions of the teacher’s discussions, it is recommended to indicate the source per the rules of academic quotation.  And it should be noted that the percentage of content that is cited should be limited to extent that is reasonable and necessary.
(4) Provision of URL:
The URL of information from legitimate source can be provided.
(5) Referencing the content of a book:
The content of a published textbook can be recited publicly for teaching purpose.  However, the teacher should avoid directly displaying the content of others’ books (including pictures, text, etc.).  If it is necessary to use the pictures or charts in the books, the teacher should indicate the page numbers and titles of those books, and recommends students to purchase the author’s book for reference.
(6) Referencing the content of news
Teachers can use oral and literary works of news that simply convey the facts and incorporate them into their own teaching materials or explanations.  The charts, films and comments in the news should be authorized in advance or quoted within the degree that is reasonable and necessary.
(7) If it is possible to obtain consent or license from the copyright owners, it should be obtained before exploiting their works.
(8) The contents of the teaching resource, including CD provided by the publisher, or the relevant websites (such as charts, photos, animations, slides, teaching manuals, answers of exercises or examinations) are usually only authorized for the teacher to use in the preparation and teaching of his/her course. If the teacher further uploads these digital files to the campus network platform, cloud storage or other network spaces for students to browse, download or use, or record these files in the open course, it becomes a “reproduction” or “public transmission” prescribed in Copyright Act.  The teacher should obtain consent or license from the copyright owner of those files in advance, or if the teacher would like to apply the fair use doctrine, the teacher could only quote the copyrighted material within the degree that is reasonable and necessary.
2. Can a student record the online course for review and share it with their classmates?
Answer:
If a student records the teaching videos, he will be reproducing others’ works.  It may be fair use if the student only keeps the recording for his personal review of the course.  However, if the student further uploads the recording so that others can watch, download, send to others or share with other groups through the communication software, or sells, rents to others, etc., such behavior would constitute a “reproduction” or “public transmission” of the teacher’s or others’ works, and consent or license from the teacher or relevant copyright owner should be obtained so as to comply with Copyright Act.
For questions about intellectual property rights in course digitalization,
please contact 【Digital Learning Center】
Email
ntudlc@ntu.edu.tw